Islamic Economics Perspective. 

A Research Project Devoted to Understanding Islamic Teachings Related to Economics

Quran and Hadith on Economics

Sources of Income Permissible In Islam
As per Islamic teachings, other than the explicitly identified impermissible sources of income, every other source of income is permissible in which the benefits are enjoyed by all the concerning parties on just basis.
Allah in Holy Quran says:
“Do not devour one another’s property wrongfully, nor throw it before the judges in order to devour a portion of other’s property sinfully and knowingly.” (Al-Baqarah: 188)
“Do not devour another’s property wrongfully – unless it be by trade based on mutual consent.” (Al-Nisa: 29)
Sources of Income Prohibited In Islam
a)     Bribery (Al-Baqarah: 188).
b)    Usurping others’ property (Al-Baqarah: 188).
c)     Fraud (Al-Imran: 161).
d)    Stealing and robbery (Al-Maida: 38).
e)     Income from sources of vulgarity (Al-Noor: 19).
f)     Gambling (Al-Maida: 90).
g)    Wine and its business (Al-Maida: 90).
h)     Interest (Al-Baqarah: 275).
Moral Directives of Islam in Conducting Business
Moral Conduct in Entrepreneurship
“And measure full when you measure. And weigh with an even balance. This is better and its end is good.” [Al-Bani-Israel: 35]
“They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom.” [Al-Tauba: 34]
“You resort to oaths as instruments of mutual deceit, so that a person might take greater advantage than another; although, Allah puts you to the test through this. Surely, on the Day of Resurrection, He will make clear the truth concerning the matters over which you differed.” [Al-Nahl: 92]
“Who so desires the reward of the world, then with Allah is the reward both of the world and of the Hereafter. And Allah is Hearing, Seeing.” [Al-Nisa:134]
“And that the man will not get, but what he endeavors. And that his endeavor shall soon be seen.” [An-Najm: 39-40]
“O Believers! Whenever you lend money for a particular period, write and someone among you must write it justly. And the one who can write must not refuse.” [Al-Baqara: 282]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Whosoever sells a defective product without disclosing its defect to the purchaser, shall earn the permanent anger of Almighty Allah and the angels continuously curse such a person.” [Ibn-e-Maja]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return the goods as long as they have not parted or till they part; and if both the parties spoke the truth and described the defects and qualities [of the goods], then they would be blessed in their transaction, and if they told lies or hid something, then the blessings of their transaction would be lost.” [Bukhari]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has exhorted that we should refrain from taking oaths unnecessarily; for although, it helps in the sale of one’s products, it reduces the blessings. [Bukhari & Muslim]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “If anyone would like Allah to save him from the hardships of the Day of Resurrection, he should give more time to his debtor who is short of money, or remit his debt altogether.” [Muslim]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “May Allah’s mercy be on him who is lenient in his buying, selling, and in demanding back his money [or debts].” [Bukhari & Tirmidhi]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “A time will come upon the people when one will not care how one earns money, i.e. legally or illegally.” [Bukhari]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The flesh and body that is raised on unlawful sustenance shall not enter Paradise. Hell is more deserving to the flesh that grows on one’s body out of unlawful sustenance.” [Ahmad]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The truthful and trustworthy businessman will be in the company of Prophets, saints and martyrs on the Day of Judgment.” [Darimi & Tirmidhi]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “And what is most likely to send people to Paradise? Being conscious of Allah and good manners.” [Bukhari, Tirmidhi & Ahmed]
Islamic Teachings and Unethical Trade Practices
“Allah will deprive usury of all blessing, but will give increase for deeds of charity.” [Al-Baqara: 276]
“Woe to those that deal in fraud. Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure. But, when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due. Do they not think that they will be called to account?” [Al-Mutaffifin:1-4]
Keeping the commodities of general use in possession and not supplying them in the market for the sake of increasing the price is prohibited. [Ahmed-Bin-Hanbal]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “No one hoards but the traitors (i.e. the sinners).” [Abu Da’ud]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The importer [of an essential commodity] into the town will be fed [by Allah], and the hoarder will have [Allah’s] curse upon him.” [Ibn Majah]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Allah’s Messenger cursed the one who accepts interest and the one who pays, and the one who records it, and the two witnesses; and he said: They are all equal.” [Muslim]
The Apostle of Allah (pbuh) cursed the one who pays bribes and the one who takes bribes. [Abu Da’ud]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Do not harbor envy against one another; do not outbid one another [with a view to raising the price]; do not bear aversion against one another; do not bear enmity against one another; one of you should not enter into a transaction when the other has already entered into it; and be fellow brothers and true servants of Allah.” [Muslim]
Trying to buy commodities before they reach market is prohibited because market will decide the price. [Muslim]
Futures and Forward Trading: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “He who buys food grain should not sell it until he has taken possession of it.” [Muslim]
Analogical Deduction in Matters: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “What is lawful is evident and what is unlawful is evident, and in between them are the doubtful things which many people do not know. So he who guards against doubtful things keeps his religion and honor blameless, and he who indulges in doubtful things indulges in fact in unlawful things, just as a shepherd who pastures his animals round a preserve will soon pasture them in it. Beware, every king has a preserve, and the things Allah has declared unlawful are His preserves. Beware, in the body there is a piece of flesh; if it is sound, the whole body is sound and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt.” [Bukhari & Muslim]
Benefits of Honest Conduct in Partnership
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has said that Almighty Allah proclaims: “I am a one third partner of a two man partnership until one of them acts dishonestly to his partner, and, in such an event, I then leave them.” [Abu Da’ud]
The importance of Paying One’s Liability
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “After the major sins which must be avoided, the greatest sin is that someone dies in a state of debt and leaves behind no asset to pay it off.” [Darimi]
Job Responsibility of Employee: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The honest treasurer who gives willingly what he is ordered to give, is one of the two charitable persons, (the second being the owner).” [Mishka’at]
Responsibility of Employer: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Give the labor his wage before his sweat dries.” [Ibn-e-Majah]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Those are your brothers [workers under you] who are around you; Allah has placed them under you. So, if anyone of you has someone under him, he should feed him out of what he himself eats, give him clothes like what he himself puts on, and do not put so much burden on him that he is not able to bear, [and if that be the case], then lend your help to him.” [Bukhari]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “I will be foe to three persons on the Last Day: one of them being the one who does not give dues to the servant he employs even after he has fulfilled his duty.” [Bukhari]
Justice and Honesty: Islamic View
“O believers! Stand firmly for justice, giving witness for Allah, may be therein your own loss, or of your parents or of your relations. Against whom you be a witness, he be a rich or be a poor, in any case Allah has more power than anyone over them, therefore follow not passion lest you may be far away from justice; and if you distort or turn your face, then Allah is aware of your doings.” [Al-Nisa: 135]
“O believers! Stand-up firmly by the Commandments of Allah, bearing witness with justice and let not the enmity of any people incite you that you should not do justice. Do justice that is nearer to piety and fear Allah, undoubtedly, Allah is aware of your doings.” [Al-Maida: 8]
Gender and Ethnic Discrimination: Islamic View
“O people! We created you from one man and one woman and made you divided in branches and tribes so that you may recognize one another. Undoubtedly, the most respected among you in the sight of Allah is the one who is more pious. Verily, Allah is knowing, Aware.” [Al-Hujurat: 13]
Directives of Islam to an Earning Individual
Encouragement for Welfare Spending 
“…Remember, the example of those who spend in the way of Allah is like that of a grain, which sprouts into seven ears, producing a hundred grains in each ear. Allah [by His mercy] increases manifold [the rewards of such deeds] for whom He wills. And Indeed, Allah is extremely bountiful [in rewarding His servants], fully aware [of your circumstances and deeds].” [Al-Baqara: 261]
“Those needy ones who are wholly wrapped up in the cause of Allah, and who are hindered from moving about the earth in search of their livelihood especially deserve help. He who is unaware of their circumstances supposes them to be wealthy because of their dignified bearing, but you will know them by their countenance, although they do not go about begging people with importunity. And whatever wealth you will spend on helping them, Allah will know of it.” [Al-Baqara: 273]
“Look, you are being called upon to expend in Allah’s Way, yet some of you are being niggardly, whereas the one who is niggardly is, in fact, being niggardly only to himself. Allah is Self-Sufficient. It is you who are the needy. If you turn away, Allah will replace you by another people, and they will not be like you.” [Muhammad: 38]
“(O Prophet!) Tell those of My servants who believe that they should establish prayer and spend out of what We have provided them with, both secretly and openly, before there arrives the Day when there will be no bargaining, nor any mutual befriending.” [Ibrahim: 31]
“Have you seen him who belies the rewards and punishments of the Hereafter? He it is, who drives away the orphan and does not urge giving away the food to the poor.” (Al-Ma’un: 1 – 3)
“Those who blame Muslims who give charity willingly and laugh at those who get nothing but with their hard labor, Allah will punish them for their laughing and for them, is the painful.” [Al-Tauba: 79]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Spend, and do not count, lest Allah counts against you. Do not withhold your money, lest Allah withholds from you. Spend what you can.” [Bukhari & Muslim].
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The Lord’s commandment for every one of His slaves is, ‘Spend on others, and I will spend on you’.” [Bukhari & Muslim]
Attitude of the Giver of Charity
“Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah and do not follow up their spending by stressing their benevolence and causing hurt, will find their reward secure with their Lord. They have no cause for fear and grief. To speak a kind word and to forgive people’s faults is better than charity followed by hurt. Allah is All-Sufficient, All-Forbearing. Believers! Do not nullify your acts of charity by stressing your benevolence and causing hurt as does he who spends his wealth only to be seen by men and does not believe in Allah and the Last Day. The example of his spending is that of a rock with a thin coating of earth upon it. When a heavy rain smites it, the earth is washed away, leaving the rock bare. Such people derive no gain from their acts of charity. Allah does not set the deniers of the Truth on the right way.” [Al-Baqara: 262 – 264]
Islamic View on Unscrupulous Consumption
“Give to the near of kin his due, and also to the needy and the wayfarers. Do not squander your wealth wastefully; for those who squander wastefully are Satan’s brothers, and Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.” [Al-Bani-Israel: 26 – 27]
“Do not keep your hand fastened to your neck nor outspread it, altogether widespread, for you will be left sitting rebuked, destitute.” [Al-Bani-Israel: 29]
“Those people, who when they spend, are neither extravagant nor miserly but keep the golden mean between the two (extremes).” [Al-Furqan: 67]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “When you eat, drink, give charity and wear clothes, let no extravagance or pride be mixed up with what you do.” [Ibn Maja & Nasai]
Stinginess and Wealth Accumulation: Islamic View
“Those who do not spend their wealth that has been given to them by Allah must not think that it is good for them; indeed it is bad for them.” (Al-Imran: 180)
“… Allah does not love the arrogant and the boastful, who are niggardly and bid others to be niggardly and conceal the bounty which Allah has bestowed upon them. We have kept in readiness a humiliating chastisement for such deniers (of Allah’s bounty).” [Al-Nisa: 36-37]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Avoid doing injustice to others, for on the Day of Judgment, it will turn into manifold darkness, and safeguard yourself against miserliness, for it ruined those who were before you. It incited them to murder and treating the unlawful as lawful.” [Muslim]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “There are two habits which are never present together in a believer, i.e. miserliness and bad manners.” [Tirmidhi]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “When someone is made rich but he does not pay Zakat for his wealth, then on the Day of Judgment his money will be turned into a poisonous snake with two black spots on its head. It will coil around his neck and bite his cheeks and say: ‘I am your wealth, I am your treasure’. Then the Prophet recited verse Al Imran: 180.” [Bukhari]
Paying Zakat
“Say your prayers (Namaaz) and pay Zakat.” [Al-Muzammil: 20]
“Establish prayer and dispense the purifying alms (Zakat) and bow in worship with those who bow.” [Al-Baqara: 43]
Entrepreneurship Versus Dependency 
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The upper hand is better than the lower hand (i.e. he who gives in charity is better than him who takes it). One should start giving first to his dependents. And the best object of charity is that which is given by a wealthy person (from the money which is left after his expenses).” [Bukhari]
Social Responsibility: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “If any Muslim plants something or sows seed from which a man, a bird or an animal eats, it counts as a charity for him.” [Bukhari & Muslim]
Communal Development: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The best charity is that which is practiced by a wealthy person. And start giving first to your dependents.” [Bukhari]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “To give something to a poor man brings one reward, while giving the same to a needy relation brings two: one for charity and the other for respecting the family ties.” [Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Nasai & Tirmidhi]
Utility and Satisfaction: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Wealth is not in having vast riches, it is in contentment.” [Bukhari & Muslim]


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